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    關于即將到來的5G時代,你需要知道這些
    發布時間:2019-07-04 15:07:12   來源:本站原創   點擊量:
    In 2019, a big technology shift will finally begin. It’s a once-in-a-decade upgrade to our wireless systems that will start reaching mobile phone users in a matter of months.
    2019年,一場重大的技術變革終于要開始了。這是我們的無線系統十年一次的升級,將在幾個月內開始觸及手機用戶。
     
    But this is not just about faster smartphones. The transition to new fifth-generation cellular networks — known as 5G for short — will also affect many other kinds of devices, including industrial robots, security cameras, drones and cars that send traffic data to one another. This new era will leap ahead of current wireless technology, known as 4G, by offering mobile internet speeds that will let people download entire movies within seconds and most likely bring big changes to video games, sports and shopping.
    但這不僅僅是讓智能手機變得更快那么簡單。向新的第五代蜂窩網絡(簡稱5G)的過渡,還將影響許多其他類型的設備,包括工業機器人、保安攝像頭、無人機和相互發送交通數據的汽車。通過提供能讓人們在幾秒鐘內下載整部電影,并很有可能給電子游戲、體育和購物帶來巨大變化的移動互聯網速度,這個新時期相對當前的無線技術——即4G——是一次飛躍。
     
    Officials in the United States and China see 5G networks as a competitive edge. The faster networks could help spread the use of artificial intelligence and other cutting-edge technologies.
    美國和中國的官員們視5G網絡為一種競爭優勢。更快的網絡可以幫助傳播人工智能和其他尖端技術的使用。
     
    Expect to hear more about 5G soon at events like the big consumer electronics trade show CES in January in Las Vegas and MWC Barcelona (formerly the Mobile World Congress) in February in Spain. Wireless service providers including AT&T and Verizon are already talking up 5G. And device makers are previewing gadgets that will work with the technology.
    在1月拉斯維加斯的大型消費電子展會CES和2月巴塞羅那世界移動通信大會(MWC)這樣的活動中,預計很快就能了解更多關于5G的信息。包括AT&T和威瑞森(Verizon)在內的無線服務提供商已經在談論5G。設備制造商正在預測試與該技術配套的設備。
     
    Samsung recently demonstrated prototypes of 5G smartphones that are expected to operate on both Verizon and AT&T networks. Many other manufacturers are racing to follow suit, though Apple is not expected in the initial 5G wave. Analysts predict that iPhones with the new technology won’t arrive until 2020. An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment.
    三星(Samsung)***近展示了預計會在威瑞森和AT&T網絡上運行的5G智能手機樣機。許多其他制造商正在競相跟進,盡管蘋果(Apple)預計不會出現在***初的5G浪潮中。分析師預測,采用新技術的iPhone將直到2020年才會到來。蘋果發言人拒絕置評。
     
    Here’s what you need to know.
    這里是你需要知道的東西。
    What exactly is 5G?
     
    5G究竟是什么?
    Strictly speaking, 5G is a set of technical ground rules that define the workings of a cellular network, including the radio frequencies used and how various components like computer chips and antennas handle radio signals and exchange data.
    嚴格來說,5G是一套技術基礎規則,它定義了蜂窩網絡的工作方式,包括使用的無線電頻率以及電腦芯片和天線等各種組件如何處理無線電信號和交換數據。
     
    Since the first cellphones were demonstrated in the 1970s, engineers from multiple companies have convened to agree on new sets of specifications for cellular networks, which are designated a new technology generation every decade or so. To get the benefits of 5G, users will have to buy new phones, while carriers will need to install new transmission equipment to offer the faster service.
    自從20世紀70年代手機首次被演示以來,來自多家公司的工程師就已經聚集起來,就蜂窩網絡的新一套規范達成一致,即蜂窩網絡每十年左右被指定為新一代技術。為了獲得5G的產品功效,用戶將不得不購買新的手機,而運營商將需要安裝新的傳輸設備以提供更快的服務。
     
    How fast will 5G be?
    5G有多快?
     
    The answer depends on where you live, which wireless services you use and when you decide to take the 5G plunge.
    答案取決于你生活在哪里、你使用哪種無線服務以及你何時決定嘗試使用5G。
    Qualcomm, the wireless chipmaker, said it had demonstrated peak 5G download speeds of 4.5 gigabits a second, but predicts initial median speeds of about 1.4 gigabits. That translates to roughly 20 times faster than the current 4G experience.
    無線芯片制造商高通公司(Qualcomm)稱5G的下載速度峰值可以達到每秒4.5千兆比特,但預計初始中值速度約為1.4千兆比特。這相當于目前4G體驗的大約20倍。
     
    The 5G speeds will be particularly noticeable in higher-quality streaming video. And downloading a typical movie at the median speeds cited by Qualcomm would take 17 seconds with 5G, compared with six minutes for 4G.
    5G速度在高質量流媒體視頻中尤其引人注目。按照高通所稱的中值速度,下載一部常規大小的電影用5G只需17秒,而4G需要6分鐘。
     
    Rather than remembering to download a season of a favorite TV show before heading to the airport, for example, you could do it while in line to board a plane, said Justin Denison, a Samsung senior vice president.
    三星高級副總裁賈斯汀·丹尼森(Justin Denison)說,你不必在前往機場前,記著下載好某一季***喜愛的電視節目,你可以在比如排隊登機時下載。
     
    Is that the only speed that matters?
    這是******重要的速度嗎?
     
    No. There’s another kind of speed, a lag known as latency, that may become even more important with 5G.
    不是。還有另一種速度,被稱為延遲的滯后問題,這個在5G上可能更加重要。
     
    Issue a command now on a smartphone — like starting a web search — and the response isn’t exactly immediate. A lag of 50 to several hundred milliseconds is common, partly because signals often must pass between different carrier switching centers; 5G, which uses newer networking technology, was designed to reduce latency down to a few milliseconds. It was also designed to deliver signals more reliably than earlier cellular networks, which today frequently drop bits of data that aren’t essential for tasks like watching movies on a phone.
    當前在智能手機上發出一條指令——比如開啟網頁搜索——得到的響應確切來說并不是即時的。延遲50至幾百毫秒很常見,部分是因為信號通常要在不同的運營商交換中心之間傳遞;5G采用了更新的網絡技術,被設計用于將延遲降至幾毫秒。它還被設計用于比早前的蜂窩網絡更可靠地傳輸信號,后者如今在一些并非不可或缺的使用中,比如在手機上看電影,是經常會丟掉一些數據的。
     
    That improvement could bring many benefits, notably in fields such as virtual reality. The highest-quality VR applications now typically require bulky headsets that are connected by wire to nearby personal computers that generate 3D images. With 5G, that would be off-loaded wirelessly to other machines, freeing users to move and making it easier to develop goggles the size of eyeglasses, said Cristiano Amon, president of Qualcomm’s semiconductor business.
    這種改進可帶來很多益處,比較顯著的是在虛擬現實這類領域。******質量的虛擬現實應用現在一般都要配備笨重的頭具,以有線方式接到附近生成3D圖像的個人計算機上。高通半導體業務總裁克里斯蒂亞諾·阿蒙(Cristiano Amon)說,有了5G就可以無線連接到其它機器上,使用戶可以自由移動,也可以更容易開發出眼鏡大小的目鏡。
     
    In the related field of augmented reality, people could point a smartphone camera at a football game and see both live video on the display and superimposed player statistics or other data, said Patrick Moorhead, an analyst at Moor Insights & Strategy.
    穆爾咨詢和戰略公司(Moor Insights & Strategy)分析師帕特里克·穆爾黑德(Patrick Moorhead)說,在增強現實(AR)的相關領域,人們可以用智能手機的攝像頭對準一場足球比賽,在顯示屏上觀看直播視頻的同時,可以看疊加的球員統計數據或其它數據。
     
    And 5G’s impact extends to medicine and other fields that increasingly rely on high-speed connections.
    5G的影響還觸及醫療及其它日益依賴高速連接的領域。
     
    “If you talk about remote surgery or connected cars, you don’t want latency times to be too long,” said Fredrik Jejdling, an executive vice president at Ericsson, a maker of cellular equipment.
    “要說到遠程手術或聯網汽車,你可不想有太多延遲,”手機設備制造商愛立信公司(Ericsson)執行副總裁弗雷德里克·杰德林(Fredrik Jejdling)說。
     
    When will 5G be here?
    5G什么時候會到來?
     
    The answer for smartphone users in the United States appears to be by the second quarter of 2019; precise timing is uncertain.
    對于美國的智能手機用戶,答案似乎是在2019年第二季度;確切時間尚不確定。
     
    Countries expected to follow the United States with 2019 rollouts of 5G include Britain, Germany, Switzerland, China, South Korea and Australia, according to a timetable compiled by Qualcomm.
    根據高通公司編制的時間表,預計2019年將在美國之后于推出5G技術的國家包括英國、德國、瑞士、中國、韓國和澳大利亞。
     
    Will consumers see the full benefits of 5G?
    消費者能充分享受5G的優越嗎?
     
    Verizon and AT&T will introduce their 5G offerings with the first use of high frequencies that are known by the phrase “millimeter wave.” Using this, the wireless providers can pump data at high speeds, but the signals don’t travel as far. So the two carriers are expected to first target densely populated areas — “parts or pockets” of cities, as AT&T’s Fuetsch put it.
    威瑞森和AT&T將在它們的5G產品中首次使用稱為“毫米波”的高頻技術。利用這一點,無線服務提供商可以高速傳輸送數據,但信號能傳輸的距離有限。因此,預計這兩家運營商將首先瞄準人口密集的地區——用AT&T的安德烈·富奇(Andre Fuetsch)的話來說,就是城市的“部分地區”。
     
    Sprint and T-Mobile plan to start with lower frequencies. The result may be somewhat slower initial speeds but broader range, said Michael Thelander, president of Signals Research, a wireless consultancy.
    Sprint和T-Mobile計劃從較低的頻率開始。無線咨詢公司信號研究(Signals Research)的總裁邁克爾·泰蘭德(Michael Thelander)說,結果可能是初始速度有所減慢,但覆蓋范圍更廣。
     
    Still, 5G’s full benefits aren’t expected until U.S. carriers upgrade key central switching equipment, which may not happen until late 2019 or sometime in 2020.
    不過,5G的全部好處預計要等到美國的運營商升級核心交換設備之后才能實現,而這可能要到2019年末或2020年的某個時候。
     
    So should I buy a smartphone that works with 5G right away?
    我是否應該馬上買一臺支持5G的智能手機呢?
     
    You have a lot to consider. For example, while Verizon and AT&T plan to later add 5G services based on lower frequencies that offer wider coverage, the first 5G handsets may not work with those portions of their networks. So the reach of 5G signals for those phones may remain limited.
    你需要考慮很多事情。例如,雖然威瑞森和AT&T計劃稍后增加基于低頻的5G服務,提供更廣泛的覆蓋范圍,但是******批5G手機在其該部分網絡下可能無法正常工作。因此,這些手機的5G信號范圍可能仍然受限。
     
    “I wouldn’t buy a 5G phone until it supports 5G in one of the lower-frequency bands,” Mr. Thelander said. “For all operators but Sprint, this means at least late 2019, and more likely 2020.”
    “在5G手機能支持較低頻段的5G網絡之前,我不會購買它,”泰蘭德說。“對于除了Sprint之外的所有運營商,這意味著至少要在2019年末,更有可能會是在2020年。”
     
    來源:紐約時報
    供稿:監理5部任重

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